Please refer to the 2019 exam paper for questions and items. However, others would suggest that TNCs are held accountable for their actions, with $150 billion of lawsuits being processed per year against TNCs worldwide. By clicking 'Log in', you're accepting tutor2u's Privacy Policy, where you can find out what personal data we collect and how we use it. Inequality is created by TNCs generating greater profits from lower labour costs and increased sales, whilst the standard of living for many in the developing world diminishes.

A disadvantage of using relative poverty as a measurement of poverty is that relative poverty is subjective or biased. The term glass ceiling means being able to the see the opportunities available but, because of barriers, not being able to reach them. However, some sociologist would disagree that there is large gender pay gap and would argue that it is closing in more economically developed countries. These responses have been written by experienced AQA teachers/examiners, but without reference to a mark scheme. According to Frank, TNCs operate forms of modern slavery that exploit the land, natural resources and labour of the developing world for their own profit. Much cheaper & more effective than TES or the Guardian. For example, a working-class person might underachieve at school because of material deprivation, which might mean they are more likely to get fewer qualifications and, as a result, get a lower paid job. Fax: +44 01937 842110, We’re proud to sponsor TABS Cricket Club, Harrogate Town AFC and the Wetherby Junior Cricket League as part of our commitment to invest in the local community, Company Reg no: 04489574 | VAT reg no 816865400, © Copyright 2018 |Privacy & cookies|Terms of use, Global Development: Revision Guide for AQA A Level Sociology, Revision Flashcards for AQA A-Level Sociology, Revision Guides for AQA A-Level Sociology, Agyeiwaa R. and Attom L. E. ‘Gendered Perceptions and Challenges Facing Females in Educational Leadership Positions’ (2018), The captain rescuing migrants in the Mediterranean during the Covid-19 pandemic, ‘I am starving’: the migrant workers abandoned by Dubai employers. All Year 11 students preparing to take GCSE Sociology exams in summer 2021. TNCs have been accused of environmental damage, such as Coca-Cola in India were accused of polluting the water supply of local farmers, whilst Shell where found guilty of polluting the waters of the Niger Delta. 214 High Street, Further copies of this mark scheme are available from . However, other critics would suggest that TNCs exploit the need to develop and that instead of trade, targeted aid could be used to enable nations to develop according to their own needs, rather than those of the West. This section includes recent A-Level Sociology (7192) and AS-Level Sociology (7191) past papers from AQA. However, feminists would argue that the women may have a greater chance of getting equal pay but they do not have the same job opportunities due to stereotypes around women being housewives and the lack of availability of flexible working conditions. paper. Furthermore, TNCs have used their economic power and political connections to intimidate those that challenge them, for example, Phillip Morris tobacco threatening to sue the Australian Government for banning advertising on cigarette packets. Boston House,

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This glass ceiling could be due oppression and exploitation in work, home and state. For example, women still experience lower wages than men, despite the Equal Pay Act. However, dependency theorists are less than enthusiastic about the role of TNCs, suggesting that they bring exploitation of both people and resources to the developing world. You can download each of the AQA A-Level Sociology past papers and marking schemes by clicking the links below. New Right sociologist, Murray, would agree that a dependency culture exists because the underclass relies on benefits, which creates a dependency culture, which normalizes living on benefits and reduces aspirations. One type of authority, according to Weber, could be charismatic. A-Level Paper 2: Topics in Sociology (7192/2) Download Past Paper - Download Mark Scheme. In some conflicts, such as the civil war in the Democratic Republic of Congo, children have been used as soldiers by militias, disrupting their education and putting their lives in danger. Rostow sees TNCs as being important in helping to develop trade infrastructure by building factories in the developing world as the ‘take-off stage’, whilst the expertise of TNCs is often required to develop the infrastructure of a twenty-first century nation by building airports, telecommunications networks and banking systems during the ‘drive to maturity’. In the post-Cold War period, neo-liberal economic policy has become the most dominant economic theory and has focused upon the privatisation of former state industries and opening of free trade routes between nations. There are tips on how to answer 10 and 20 mark questions. 214 High Street, Duncan is an experienced social science and humanities teacher, writer and senior examiner. Bakan suggests that TNCs are ‘institutional psychopaths’ that stop at nothing to make money. They will be available for longer, so that there is access to unseen mocks later in 2020 and early 2021. This creates inequality, as the economic power of TNCs means that many traders in the developing world are driven out of business and forced to work for lower wages. This could mean they may get a lower paid job due to achieving low qualifications and this would then lead to higher a likelihood of deprivation due to having a low-paying job. Additionally, conflict can cause disruption as many conflicts, such as the ongoing conflicts in Syria and Yemen have caused massive displacement of people into refugee camps, where access to education for children is non-existent. For example, an older person might have a stereotype as frail, which might reduce the job possibilities open. Boston Spa, One way in which globalisation has affected global inequalities is through the implementation of neo-liberal economic policies. Duncan is an experienced social science and humanities teacher, writer and senior examiner. An example of this would be the $20 billion worth of contracts awarded to Halliburton to rebuild the infrastructure of Iraq following the invasion of Iraq in the early part of this century. Reach the audience you really want to apply for your teaching vacancy by posting directly to our website and related social media audiences. Autumn exams for GCSE and A-level: here's what ... This term is commonly associated with feminists, who believe that society remains patriarchal (male dominated) and women, although they can see opportunities, are unable to reach them. Reach the audience you really want to apply for your teaching vacancy by posting directly to our website and related social media audiences. Whilst the development of free trade may be seen as a boost to developing nations in so far as they are able to trade their goods with other nations, in reality it leads to the dominance of Transnational Corporations (TNCs) who utilise their economic power to exploit workers in the developing world, whilst simultaneously expanding upon the markets they can sell their products in. Whilst supporters would state that bringing in the expertise of TNCs helps provide expert knowledge, employment for local workers and the ability to pass on skills and knowledge to the indigenous population, critics would suggest that often the contracts that are awarded to these TNCs end up profiting Western businesses, whilst keeping the developing world in a state of dependency. Overall, most Marxist sociologists would disagree that the welfare state creates a culture of dependency. Stereotypes still exist around the elderly and young people, which are sometimes reinforced by the media. However, despite the progress that has been made, some critics suggest that this places women in conflict with traditional ideologies. Your free mytutor2u account gives you full access to this resource and more.

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