In Java, it is typical that if you include the same class file twice or more in a classpath, the duplicates are automatically ignored. There might be different use cases for downgrading: a bug was discovered in the latest release, your code depends on a lower version which is not binary compatible, your code doesn’t depend on the code paths which need a higher version of a dependency. Enforcing a dependency version, Example 3. In general, forcing dependencies is done to downgrade a dependency. Marketing Blog. Changing the version of a transitive dependency might lead to runtime errors if external libraries do not properly function without them. For example archive tasks also implements this interface. Opinions expressed by DZone contributors are their own. Since you don’t need these duplicate files in your application, the simplest way of doing is to tell the build system to exclude the files altogether. Exclude for more fine-grained control.

However, the production source code of the project requires an API from Commons Codec 1.9 which is not available in 1.10 anymore. If we would attempt to set a property not existing on the class, we should get an error like Unknown property on class Person.

Then this would trigger a resolution error because A says it needs C:1.1 but B, within its subgraph, strictly needs 1.0. This also happens because of the duplicate class files. If versions of dependencies clash, it is usually better to adjust the version through a dependency constraint, instead of attempting to exclude the dependency with the undesired version.

Thus the same file, when included more than once, makes a duplicate error. Utility Gradle task to find where duplicate classes come from (for Gradle 4. Excluding a transitive dependency might lead to runtime errors if external libraries do not properly function without them. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. By this, you tell Gradle that a dependency between two modules is never needed — i.e. You should prefer strict versions instead. The biggest of them is the subtle errors. By entering your email, you agree to our Terms and Privacy Policy, including receipt of emails. For copy operations, the. Since the set doesnot support duplicate entries, you will get only unique elements left with TreeSet. If, for some reason, you can’t use strict versions, you can force a dependency doing this: If the project requires a specific version of a dependency on a configuration-level then it can be achieved by calling the method ResolutionStrategy.force(java.lang.Object[]).

For the reason that Gradle system doesn’t need any ordering of things, it becomes one of the most compatible build systems. From mobile apps to microservices, from small startups to big enterprises, Gradle helps teams build, automate and deliver better software, faster. Duplicate entry for class in gradle. For example, If you were using two jars which contain common META-INF files, then you are duplicating the META-INF files. It can be hard to figure out why you ended up with these errors and where you did that. If you are authoring and publishing a library, you also need to be aware that force is not published. Join the DZone community and get the full member experience. For example, here we use the setSimpleProperty() method to modify properties defined by setters in the Person class, which works fine. If you are getting “DuplicateFileException: Duplicate files copied in APK”, just make sure that you are not repeatedly calling same dependencies. Since Gradle has no first-class support for Maven BOMs, you can use Spring’s Dependency management plugin.

Solved – DuplicateFileException: Duplicate files copied in APK META-INF/.. // compile files('libs/httpmime-4.3.5.jar'), '', "org.apache.httpcomponents:httpcore:4.x.x", "org.apache.httpcomponents:httpmime:4.x.x", 'org.apache.httpcomponents:httpmime:4.x.x'. This dependency is called transitive dependency. Using a utility from the beanutils library, Example 6. We can use the values from the enum class or use String values, which are automatically converted to enum DuplicatesStrategy values. Gradle resolves any dependency version conflicts by selecting the latest version found in the dependency graph. A popular example are clashing logging API implementations (like log4j and log4j-over-slf4j) or modules that have different coordinates in different versions (like and guava). Gradle script downloads the JAR from maven central or any other location which we specify. Example 2. Some projects might need to divert from the default behavior and enforce an earlier version of a dependency e.g.

Gradle however, offers a variety of features that might be better suited to solve a certain use case. Expand AppName > Tasks > android and double-click androidDependencies. Zeplin is an awesome desktop application that can be used as a tool for collaboration…, As of now, Android Studio needs a fast and stable internet connection to implement a…, In the previous post, you have seen how to install Eclipse IDE, ADT, and the Android…, Your email address will not be published. In this case, if this information is not known to Gradle, it is recommended to add the missing capability information via component metadata rules as described in the declaring component capabilities section. Since you don’t need these duplicate files in your application, the simplest way of doing is to tell the build system to exclude the files altogether. If you use excludes, make sure that you do not utilise any code path requiring the excluded dependency by sufficient test coverage. Consider upgrading your source code to use a newer version of the library as an alternative approach. You might have encountered another problem similar to this, the “Multiple dex files defined” problem. Historically, excludes were also used as a band aid to fix other issues not supported by some dependency management systems. However, because the error handling path uses a class from commons-collections, the error we now get is NoClassDefFoundError: org/apache/commons/collections/FastHashMap. The parameter is a value of the enumeration DuplicatesStrategy. Gradle script downloads the JAR and the dependency JAR when gradle script run. gradle打包时遇到: java. Forcing dependencies via ExternalDependency.setForce(boolean) is deprecated and no longer recommended: Another situation that you often see solved by excludes is that two dependencies cannot be used together because they represent two implementations of the same thing (the same capability). For more information, refer to ModuleDependency.exclude(java.util.Map). In the directories src/manual and src/website we have a file COPY.txt. Resolving mutually exclusive dependency conflicts: I.e. In the example above, A would have to say it strictly depends on 1.1. Don’t forget to clean, rebuild after making changes! Effectively, we are expressing that we only use a subset of the library, which does not require the commons-collection library. When it happens without you knowing it’s indeed a creepy topic. Component Metadata Rules: Now, a consumer, A, depends on both B and C:1.1. While the previous section showed how you can enforce a certain version of a transitive dependency, this section covers excludes as a way to remove a transitive dependency completely. Sometimes we come in the situation to exclude transitive dependency.

Here in the first line of code, you are including all the jar files in the libs directory, and then in the second line again httpmine.jar is included which is also from the same libs directory, which makes a duplication.

For more information about managing dependencies in Gradle, see Dependency management basics in the Gradle User Guide. It is more often that you see DuplicateFileException: Duplicate files copied in APK META-INF/.. errors in the Gradle build system. Some projects might need to divert from the default behavior and enforce an earlier version of a dependency e.g. Similar as forcing a version of a dependency, excluding a dependency completely requires a conscious decision. Your email address will not be published.

You may consider to look into the following features: Update or downgrade dependency versions:

So as a conclusion Gradle build is so strict in handling duplicate resources, and you should avoid such duplications. if the source code of the project depends on an older API of a dependency than some of the external libraries. In particular, a strict version will override any other strict version on the same module found transitively.

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