For example, in the following molecule, it is easy to spot the ethyl group but a naming the second substituents needs following certain rules. Essentially, you need to look at the complex substituent as a separate molecule and find its “parent chain” and the alkyl groups on it. 0000003809 00000 n Find the substituents. 0000006856 00000 n 1) I 8) Br CH3 2) CH3 H2C CH3 H3C CH CH2CH2 9) H3C H 3C C CCHCHCH H2C CH3 3) H3C C CH2CH3 O 10) … The first thing you need to do before learning the IUPAC rules for systematic nomenclature is making sure you know the names of the first ten alkanes: Assuming you have already mastered those, let’s draw a structure and name it simply based on the molecular formula: The compound has five carbons with no multiple bonds, therefore the formula is C5H12 and based on the common names, we can see that it is pentane. Title: Microsoft Word - Practice Problems on Alkane Nomenclature.docx Author: Jose Laboy Created Date: 2/7/2014 7:15:13 PM 0000000016 00000 n The longest possible chain here consists of nine carbons, so the parent chain is nonane. The following two compounds are both methylpentanes but they are clearly not identical: And, in order to distinguish them, we need to specify the location of the methyl group. �4R�9h��%n�(��=��i�@d�������H.pG"b\�CB0�T�8���.�:5Z�9��Ds�~S /}l_;ٝS8���h@PV��aR��I��Ĵ�� �}l����q�i���) �K��6���w�3���Bda*�$@E�w�{6����%:ci�& K9.v@{�H3;3#��O���i# 0000005889 00000 n ��y½��a��݁ͅMX ���Mq�D��9>>�ݹ���8n7�U���A��w��_�@$8%6�k��9��GB���W�yFzH[z��h�푟���3�`�h!9�%�g��w����8�3�+�KNW\H�̊׎��8���0��ЙR��wyt�����f��,6��.�C����_p]Yo��E�}.a�N @�6��r!\qn�֫���N�uWG��G!�8'�f��dY�7k� � �`����x�-%�q�-�����cAw�d ��G��f98}�����ńD�S�vC�8���^�q�ָB�n��$�V��*���0{�� ������D΃���=cT��/v�Iޮ��w���.�z3>J2��\l���b�h��׈y �>�s��iVbc�a��H"�ޖH� l�gGH7�3FAaa�,���l��ì��y|�Wp1i�W��R>QKň�S6��x>T��`�^d�=�I������ "�*tK��,�2���=@��u����C�9�A��@�����h1 'r(͊M �Q�ͨ�8믋��?

For this, the parent chain is numbered, and the rule here is to always do it such that the alkyl group gets the lowest possible number: Starting from the left or the right side of the parent chain, we get two names and out of these, 2-methylpentane is better than 4-methylpentane.

0000008215 00000 n

Alkyl groups are formed by removing one hydrogen from the corresponding alkane and are named based on this alkane by simply changing the ending from –ane to -yl. %%EOF 0000013320 00000 n In this case, we have a methyl and an ethyl group. Put the parent chain and substituents together by placing the substituents in alphabetical order! The complications and need for rules arise when the molecules get branched out. Step 3. 0000038284 00000 n �z�K� �AN�ʊd�TŗK���T�-Y �j$@)Y0�coD����ਥ���y[����3�gY&k~�,��~�A���%F���x��! 0000038508 00000 n Facebook. 0000009204 00000 n 0000007986 00000 n 0000012472 00000 n

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Notify me of followup comments via e-mail. Likewise, the butyl groups can also be primary, secondary and tertiary.

Now, suppose we need to name the following compound: Step 1. 0000035591 00000 n By joining Chemistry Steps, you will gain instant access to the, If you are already registered, upgrade your subscription to, Naming Alkanes by IUPAC nomenclature Rules Practice Problems, primary, secondary, and tertiary carbon atom, Primary Secondary and Tertiary Carbon Atoms in Organic Chemistry, Constitutional or Structural Isomers with Practice Problems, Degrees of Unsaturation or Index of Hydrogen Deficiency, Newman Projections with Practice Problems, Gauche Conformation, Steric, Torsional Strain Energy Practice Problems, Drawing the Chair Conformation of Cyclohexane, Ring Flip: Drawing Both Chair Conformations with Practice Problems, 1,3-Diaxial Interactions and A value for Cyclohexanes, Ring-Flip: Comparing the Stability of Chair Conformations with Practice Problems. 19 0 obj <> endobj The next exercise will teach you drawing the structure based on the IUPAC name. 0000010183 00000 n Notice that numbers are separated by commas and because there are two methyl groups, we need to use the prefix “di” before the name of the alkyl groups. Identify and name the parent in each of the following compounds: Provide a systematic name for each of the following compounds: This content is for registered users only. • The longest continuous carbon chain in the compound is the parent chain. <> This group is considered a substituent; an additional group that is on the “main part” of the molecule.

handout will cover how to correctly name alkanes using IUPAC methods. Therefore, the final name of our compound is going to be 2,3-dimethylpentane. Sometimes, we run out of the common names for the substituents such as sec-butyl, tert-butyl, iso-butyl but we still need to name a substituent that is larger than usual. Alkanes with five or more carbon atoms are named by adding the suffix -ane to the appropriate numerical multiplier, except the terminal -a is removed from the basic numerical term.

startxref 0 For example, if we start numbering the carbons of the molecule, we discussed above, from the methyl substituent, we can only have a continuous chain of four carbons. In general, if two or more identical substituents are present, the corresponding prefixes are used to indicate their number: Two – diThree – triFour – tetraFive – pentaSix – hexaSeven – heptaEight – octa. For example, what if we add a methyl (CH3) group to pentane? No sign or space needed to separate two words. If numbering the alkyl groups does not break the tie, then the substituent with the alphabetical priority gets the lower locant: For example, having a bromine and chlorine on both ends of hexane bring up the need of prioritizing the substituents based on their alphabetical order. Still looking forward to finding out why -iso is privileged…. Step 4.

If you run into a situation where there are two chains of equal length, then choose the one with the greater number of substituents: When a cyclic group is present in the molecule, the parent chain is determined based on the number of carbons.

51 0 obj <>stream If the ring has more carbons than the chain, then it is the parent chain: Notice that the carbons in the ring belong to the ring only.

0000003774 00000 n By joining Chemistry Steps, you will gain instant access to the answers and solutions for all the Practice Problems including over 20 hours of problem-solving videos, Multiple-Choice Quizzes, and the powerful set of Organic Chemistry 1 and 2 Summary Study Guides. You need to first convert this into a bond-line structure to find the parent chain and substituents. So, remember, we distinguish two units; the “main part” of the molecule, called the parent chain, and the additional group(s) known as substituents: The substituent can be a carbon fragment, and these are called alkyl groups, or any other functional group such as a halide, an OH, a nitro group etc. Alkyl groups are formed by removing one hydrogen from the corresponding alkane and are named based on this alkane by simply changing the ending from –ane to -yl. Naming’and’Drawing’Alkenes’Worksheet’and’Key’ 1)##Draw#and#name#the#cis#and#trans#condensed#structure#of:# cis#condensed#structure:# trans#condensed#structure:# name:#### # name:# # 2.#Name#the#following#alkenes#(include#cis<#or#trans<#forthe#alkenes#thatwhen#appropriate)# � ��,0�ӌ��i 2P���FހWk�amTDp\����W��9��o�� Twitter. 0000041469 00000 n

Naming Organic Compounds Practice EXERCISES A. And this an important piece of information. 0000001223 00000 n Step 2. In today’s post, we will talk about the IUPAC rules of nomenclature for naming alkanes and alkyl halides. �h��x�� ;E(? Either way it is 2. 0000041353 00000 n If you are already registered, upgrade your subscription to CS Prime under your account settings. :�8J�ap:+�%��8~ˤm��-#����ɥv)�-�2סR� �g��tI���r���iq��~��� %PDF-1.6 %���� 5. %�쏢 In this case, 1-bromo-6-chlorohexane beats 6-bromo-1-chlorohexane: If none of the rules discussed above give a tiebreak, then it is a symmetrical molecule and it does not matter where you start numbering the parent chain – as long as you do find the correct parent chain. '50}�~*^��6�����'������W�Q��G��%Œ�\�[.9�:!em����2�ĕ1�6ȸ䑳A�Aвe���?x�>����B E�^ ;O`�B�o�A��F 3s8%<68 �` L�EU��"��V%C���>��2v�pg� z����D�Wl�@�F*�l��э��S.

0000004128 00000 n If the ring and the chain have equal number of carbon atoms, the ring gets a priority and is considered as the parent chain. Therefore, 2-methylpentane is the correct IUPAC name of this compound. When naming a compound, the alkyl groups are listed first followed by the parent chain. 0000038738 00000 n To answer this, let’s consider heptane with three methyl groups: Starting from left or right makes no difference as far having the location of the first substituent. Now, let’s add another methyl group next to the first one: Again, you have two options for numbering the parent chain. you cannot count the carbon twice or include in the carbon chain. This means that even though the methyl group is at position 2, the ethyl group with the locant 6 is still placed before it: None of the prefixes such as di, tri, tetra, sec-, tert- are considered for alphabetical priority except the -iso. You can also subscribe without commenting.

Draw the bond-line structure for each of the following molecues: c) 5-(sec-butyl)-8-isopropyl-3,4,9-trimethylundecane, d) 6-(sec-butyl)-7-ethyl-3,4-dimethyldecane, f) 4-ethyl-3-isopropyl-1,1-dimethylcyclohexane, h) 4-(sec-butyl)-3,3,5,5-tetramethylheptane, Can you please tell me the proper name of this compound: (CH3 )3 C-CH2-CH(Cl)-(CH2)3-C(CH3)2-CH(NH2)-C(C2H5)(CH3)2. However, if you start from the left, you are getting 2,5,6-trimethylheptane, while starting from the right, gives 2,3,6-trimethylheptane.

0000004593 00000 n trailer So far, we have considered having identical alkyl groups. Identify the class of the following compounds.



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