When oxygen declined, atmospheric density dropped, which in turn increased surface evaporation, causing precipitation increases and warmer temperatures. 9 of Tutorial chemistry texts), Cambridge, U.K.:Royal Society of Chemistry, p. 153, From The Chemistry and Fertility of Sea Waters by H.W. ", "George Goble's extended home page (mirror)", "Surface chemistry of phase-pure M1 MoVTeNb oxide during operation in selective oxidation of propane to acrylic acid", "Multifunctionality of Crystalline MoV(TeNb) M1 Oxide Catalysts in Selective Oxidation of Propane and Benzyl Alcohol", "NFPA 704 ratings and id numbers for common hazardous materials", "The Four Most Important Equations In Clinical Practice", Roald Hoffmann article on "The Story of O", Scripps Institute: Atmospheric Oxygen has been dropping for 20 years, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Oxygen&oldid=984870447, Chemical substances for emergency medicine, Biology and pharmacology of chemical elements, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Short description is different from Wikidata, All Wikipedia articles written in American English, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 22 October 2020, at 16:13. The chemical energy of oxygen is released in mitochondria to generate ATP during oxidative phosphorylation. Free oxygen first appeared in significant quantities during the Paleoproterozoic eon (between 3.0 and 2.3 billion years ago). [50], The spectroscopy of molecular oxygen is associated with the atmospheric processes of aurora and airglow. [16], The other primary method of producing O2 is passing a stream of clean, dry air through one bed of a pair of identical zeolite molecular sieves, which absorbs the nitrogen and delivers a gas stream that is 90% to 93% O2. When oxygen declined, atmospheric density dropped, which in turn increased surface evaporation, causing precipitation increases and warmer temperatures. [82] Even if there was much dissolved iron in the oceans when oxygenic photosynthesis was getting more common, it appears the banded iron formations were created by anoxyenic or micro-aerophilic iron-oxidizing bacteria which dominated the deeper areas of the photic zone, while oxygen-producing cyanobacteria covered the shallows. NIST subscription sites provide data under the Pure or nearly pure O2 use in diving at pressures higher than atmospheric is usually limited to rebreathers, or decompression at relatively shallow depths (~6 meters depth, or less),[106][107] or medical treatment in recompression chambers at pressures up to 2.8 bar, where acute oxygen toxicity can be managed without the risk of drowning. The unusually high concentration of oxygen gas on Earth is the result of the oxygen cycle. Some people would prefer to write: O 2-This depends on what your teacher or textbook prefers. The Earth's mantle, of much larger mass than the crust, is largely composed of silicates of magnesium and iron. "Oxygen Is the High-Energy Molecule Powering Complex Multicellular Life: Fundamental Corrections to Traditional Bioenergetics”. According to some estimates, green algae and cyanobacteria in marine environments provide about 70% of the free oxygen produced on Earth, and the rest is produced by terrestrial plants. Organic compounds important in industry and commerce that are made by direct oxidation of a precursor include ethylene oxide and peracetic acid. After hydrogen and helium, oxygen is the third-most abundant element in the universe by mass. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. [136] The fire that killed the Apollo 1 crew in a launch pad test spread so rapidly because the capsule was pressurized with pure O2 but at slightly more than atmospheric pressure, instead of the ​1⁄3 normal pressure that would be used in a mission. Solid circle with an upward pointer in it. There are many important organic solvents that contain oxygen, including: acetone, methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, furan, THF, diethyl ether, dioxane, ethyl acetate, DMF, DMSO, acetic acid, and formic acid. [49] Liquid oxygen may also be condensed from air using liquid nitrogen as a coolant. The change (lowering), from the zero to the −2 state in the case of oxygen, is called a reduction. Commercially, ozone has been used as a chemical reagent, as a disinfectant, in sewage treatment, water purification, and bleaching textiles. [77] This amounts to more than 6 billion tonnes of oxygen inhaled by humanity per year. Free oxygen first appeared in significant quantities during the Paleoproterozoic eon (between 3.0 and 2.3 billion years ago). [104][130] In the case of spacesuits, the O2 partial pressure in the breathing gas is, in general, about 30 kPa (1.4 times normal), and the resulting O2 partial pressure in the astronaut's arterial blood is only marginally more than normal sea-level O2 partial pressure.

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